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Science: Reproduction of flowering plants

How does the flowering plant reproduce? Today we will be learning more about the reproduction of flowering plants.

Firstly, we need to understand the different parts of the flower and what they do. In order for flowering plants to reproduce, it requires male gametes and female gametes.

Designed by brgfx / Freepik

We need to understand which parts belong to the MALE and which parts belong to the FEMALE and how do they work together to reproduce.

The important parts of the MALE flower include:
Filament – Supports the anther
Anther – Produce male sex cells (pollen grains)
Pollen grain – Male reproductive cell

The important parts of the FEMALE flower include:
Style – Connects stigma to the ovary
Stigma – Receives pollen grains needed for reproduction
Ovary – Contains ovules, which hold female sex cells called gametes
Ovule – Contain egg cells needed for fertilisation with male reproductive cells

For flowering plants to reproduce, they need to go through the process of:
Pollination -> Fertilisation -> Seeds -> Dispersal -> Germination -> Producing new plants

Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains which can be done by the wind or animals. During fertilisation, the male reproductive cell will fuse with the female egg cell which develops into a seed that will allow a young plant to grow at the later stage of the life cycle.

Diagram showing pollination with bee and flowersDesigned by brgfx / Freepik

In order for seeds to grow healthily and avoid overcrowding, they have to be dispersed. It is also to reduce competition of sunlight, water and minerals/nutrients. Ways that the seeds can be dispersed are as follows:
– by wind
– by water
– by animals
– by splitting/explosive actions

Once seeds are settled, they will germinate. All they need is air, water and warmth. Roots will start growing out first followed by shoot and leaves. The plant will use the leaves to make food for the plant through the process of photosynthesis.

NOTE: The male reproductive cell fuses with the female egg cell stored in the ovule NOT the ovary.  

A flower that develops into a fruit must have a stigma and ovary to develop into a fruit, but need NOT have an anther. 

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